Graduation season is an extraordinary moment in every student’s life. The graduation ceremony is not only a celebration of academic achievements but also commemorates the transition from student life to adulthood. One of the most iconic items associated with this significant event is the cap and gown, which has become synonymous with commencement ceremonies worldwide. But have you ever stopped to think about what these garments actually symbolize?
The cap and gown have evolved over time with different traditions and cultural norms. However, the basic concept remains the same – the cap and gown represent academic achievement and the culmination of years of hard work. Today, the gown is typically black, while the cap (or mortarboard) is usually black with a tassel. The tassel is switched from one side to the other as part of the graduation ritual, symbolizing the transition from student to graduate.
Beyond the celebrations and festivities, the cap and gown are a symbol of hope, inspiration, and opportunity. They represent the sacrifices made to achieve success, the hard work put in, and the determination to succeed. They are a reminder of the pursuit of knowledge, the pursuit of excellence, and the pursuit of a better future. Whether you are a high school, college or graduate student, the cap and gown are a testament to your academic journey, and upon donning them, you can take pride in all that you have accomplished.
The History of Academic Dress
The tradition of wearing a cap and gown during graduation ceremonies dates back centuries ago. In fact, academic dress has a history that spans over 800 years. The first gowns were actually worn by medieval clergy members who adopted them as a way to keep warm in the cold, damp halls of European universities in the 12th and 13th centuries. Eventually, as universities began to grow and evolve into the institutions we know today, academic dress became a way to distinguish different levels of academic achievement and membership within the university community.
- The earliest gowns were made of wool and were heavily lined to protect against the chilly weather of medieval Europe.
- By the 14th century, the use of academic dress had spread to other professions, including lawyers, who began wearing long robes to indicate their status as professionals.
- By the 16th century, universities in Europe had established specific dress codes for graduation ceremonies, which included different levels of gown and hood based on the degree being awarded.
Today, academic dress is still an important part of graduation ceremonies all over the world. While the designs and colors of gowns, hoods, and caps vary widely from country to country and even from institution to institution, the basic symbolism behind the dress has remained the same: to signify academic achievement and membership within a community of scholars. Whether you are receiving a high school diploma or a doctorate degree, the cap and gown you wear on graduation day is a powerful symbol of your hard work, dedication, and commitment to learning.
Different types of academic dress in different countries
The tradition of wearing academic dress goes back to medieval times. The academic gown, a flowing robe, was originally worn as a warm garment in unheated buildings. Today, academic dress is worn at graduation ceremonies and other academic events to signify the level of education and achievement of the wearer.
- United States: In the United States, academic dress can vary widely between institutions. However, the most common style of academic dress is the black cap and gown, which is worn by graduates at almost every level of education. The color and style of the hood worn over the gown varies by degree and discipline, with different colors representing different areas of study.
- United Kingdom: Academic dress in the UK is commonly referred to as “academic regalia” and is generally standardized across the country. The gown and hood worn by graduates vary by degree, with different styles and colors representing different levels of achievement. The most famous academic dress in the UK is that of the University of Cambridge, which features a traditional black gown and a distinctive hood lined with colored silk.
- Japan: In Japan, academic dress is known as “gakuran”. Traditionally, male students wear a dark-colored uniform consisting of a jacket and trousers, while female students wear a sailor-style suit. However, this traditional style is becoming less common, and many universities now allow students to wear more modern styles of formal dress for graduation ceremonies.
Academic dress can also vary widely between other countries and cultures around the world. In some countries, traditional dress is incorporated into the academic attire, while in others, more modern styles are preferred. However, no matter the style, academic dress is a symbol of the hard work and dedication of students and scholars alike.
Here is a table showing the different colors of hoods in the United States:
|White||Arts, Letters, Humanities|
As you can see, the color of the hood can represent a specific discipline, further personalizing the academic dress and symbolizing a student’s area of study.
The Bachelor’s Gown
As the name suggests, the Bachelor’s gown is the gown worn by students who are about to receive their Bachelor’s degree. The Bachelor’s gown is a symbol of the student’s academic achievement and their readiness to take on the challenges of the world beyond the classroom.
- The Bachelor’s gown is traditionally black in color, as black is associated with sophistication and formality.
- The gown is usually made of a lightweight, breathable material such as polyester or cotton to ensure the student doesn’t get too hot while wearing the gown.
- The gown features bell-shaped sleeves that extend all the way to the wrist and a yoke that sits across the shoulders.
The Bachelor’s gown is also adorned with various academic symbols that indicate the student’s field of study. For example, a Bachelor of Science graduate may have a gold cord wrapped around their neck or draped across their shoulders, while a Bachelor of Arts graduate may have a white cord.
It’s worth noting that different universities may have slightly different variations of the Bachelor’s gown. Some may feature hoods or other additional accessories, while others may have slightly different colors or symbols.
|Color||Field of Study||Degree Type|
Overall, the Bachelor’s gown is a powerful symbol of the hard work and dedication that students put into obtaining their degree. It’s a reminder of the academic journey that has culminated in their graduation, and a symbol of the opportunities that lie ahead.
The Master’s Gown
For graduate students who have earned a master’s degree, the gown they wear during their graduation ceremony will differ slightly from those of their peers earning a bachelor’s degree. Master’s gowns are typically longer and have longer sleeves, with a slit on each side to enable easy movement. The sleeves of the gown are also more pointed and in some cases, more elaborate as well.
- The length of the gown is symbolically significant. With the ground-length of the gown, it signifies that the wearer has achieved a higher level of academic achievement than the undergraduate who wears a shorter gown.
- The longer sleeves of the gown are also significant. The tradition behind the gown’s sleeve was that they were used to wipe sweat from one’s brow as they worked towards their degree, with the belief that earning a master’s degree is a more rigorous and time-consuming process.
- The slit on each side of the gown allows for easier movement, which is appropriate for the accomplished scholar that the wearer has become.
The colors of the master’s gown, like others, also represent the field of study. The hood, which is worn over the gown, has velvet trim in the color of the degree and a lining that represents the school. When it comes to the master’s hood, the velvet trim extends along the entire hood, both its length and width, rather than just the front edge.
The master’s gown is much more elaborate than the undergraduate gown. It symbolizes the hard work, dedication, and knowledge of the wearer. Its longer length and sleeves, together with the highlighted color of the hood, make it a symbol of academic distinction.
|Symbolism of the Master’s Gown||Meaning|
|Length||Higher level of academic achievement|
|Sleeves||More rigorous and time-consuming process of earning a master’s degree|
|Slit on each side||Symbolizes that the wearer has become an accomplished scholar|
The master’s gown is a significant symbol of intellectual and academic achievement. It serves as proof of the wearer’s commitment to excellence and their dedication to earning an advanced degree.
The Doctoral Gown
The doctoral gown is the quintessential symbol of academic achievement. But how did this academic regalia become associated with scholars and graduation ceremonies?
Historically, gowns have been a symbol of status and hierarchy. In the Middle Ages, academic scholars wore long robes with hoods as a way to keep warm in drafty, unheated classrooms. As universities grew in popularity, the gown began to represent academic achievement and became a popular form of ceremonial attire for special academic occasions.
The doctoral gown, in particular, has a unique design that sets it apart from other academic gowns. It features several distinctive elements:
- A velvet trim – The velvet trim around the gown signifies the academic discipline of the wearer. The color of the trim varies based on the field of study. For instance, recipients of doctorates in theology or divinity wear a gown with a scarlet velvet trim, while a PhD in engineering would have an orange trim.
- Puffy sleeves – The puffy sleeves at the shoulder level of the doctoral gown represent the medieval scholar’s robes that utilized sleeves to keep the hands warm while writing.
- A hood – The hood, lined in the school colors, symbolizes the wearer’s academic achievement.
- The shape of the hood – The shape and size of the doctoral hood indicates the type of degree conferred and the academic institution that awarded it.
- The doctoral cap – The cap is also known as a tam. The tam is made of black velvet and varies in design depending on the institution conferring the degree. It is typically worn at an angle to show that the wearer has achieved the highest level of academic recognition.
The doctoral gown is a marker of the highest academic achievement and is reserved only for those who have earned a Doctorate. When wearing the gown, the wearer is recognized as a produced original research that has made a notable contribution to their field of study.
|Discipline||Velvet Trim Color|
|Information Science||Light Blue|
|Physical Education||Sage Green|
Overall, the doctoral gown is an iconic symbol that highlights an scholar’s academic achievement and dedication to their field of study.
The significance of the cap’s tassel placement
The tassel on a graduation cap symbolizes more than just a decorative accent. Its placement holds a special meaning that has been passed down for generations. While some universities and colleges may have their own traditions, most follow a general guideline when it comes to tassel placement. Understanding the significance of this tradition can help graduates appreciate the symbolism behind their cap and gown.
- Starting on the right:
- Moving to the left:
The tassel is traditionally worn on the right side of the cap at the beginning of the graduation ceremony. This signifies that you have not yet graduated and are still working towards your degree.
Once all the graduates have received their diplomas, the ceremony’s keynote speaker or the university official will instruct the graduates to move their tassels to the left side of the cap. This signifies that you have officially become a graduate and have earned your degree.
Some universities may have different traditions when it comes to tassel placement. For example, some may require the tassel to be on the left side throughout the ceremony, while others may allow graduates to switch their tassel at different times throughout the ceremony.
The tradition of tassel placement dates back to the 12th century when academic dress was first introduced. At that time, only a select few were able to receive a formal education, and graduation ceremonies were a way to signify their academic achievements. The wearing of caps and gowns was seen as a symbol of scholarly excellence, and the tassel was added to the cap as a way to add a decorative touch and signify academic success.
Today, the tassel and its placement continue to symbolize academic excellence. It represents the time and effort that graduates have put into their studies, as well as the start of a new chapter in their lives.
Overall, the tassel’s placement holds a special meaning that goes beyond its decorative appearance. It symbolizes the hard work, dedication, and achievement of the graduate and serves as a reminder of their academic success for years to come.
The Color Symbolism of the Cap and Gown
The cap and gown are not just any ordinary outfit worn during a graduation ceremony. They hold deep meaning and symbolize the academic achievements of the wearer. The colors used in the cap and gown also have a significant role to play in communicating the wearer’s academic level and achievements in a dignified manner. Of all the colors used in the cap and gown, the most popular are black, blue, brown, gold, green, orange, pink, purple, red, and white.
Number 7: Gold
- Gold is considered as the highest and most prestigious color used in the academic regalia.
- It signifies achievement, honor, and excellence, and is awarded to those who have attained the highest academic degree, such as a Ph.D. or Doctorate.
- It is also used to denote professional achievements in fields such as Law, Business, and Engineering.
Other Colors and Their Meanings
Here is a brief overview of what other colors used in the academic cap and gown signify:
- Black – represents the foundation of academic achievements and the dignity of higher education.
- Blue – signifies the mastery of a particular discipline, such as Science or Philosophy.
- Brown – used to denote a degree in Architecture, Agriculture, or other related fields.
- Green – represents a degree in Medicine, Agriculture, and Environmental Science.
- Orange – signifies a degree in Engineering or a related field.
- Pink – used to denote a degree in Music.
- Purple – represents a degree in Law and is also used for doctoral degrees in some countries.
- Red – used for degrees in Theology and other religious studies.
- White – signifies a degree in Liberal Arts and other interdisciplinary fields.
The Academic Hood Colors
Apart from the cap and gown, the academic regalia also includes the academic hood that signifies further academic achievements. Just like the cap and gown, the hood’s colors also carry different meanings, and each color represents a specific degree and institution.
|White||Arts, Letters, Humanities|
|Salmon Pink||Public Health|
|Drab||Commerce, Accounting, and Business|
The cap and gown’s color and academic hood may seem like just another piece of clothing, but their colors and meanings represent the wearer’s academic journey, hard work, and achievements. They are a symbol of pride and honor for the wearer and their family.
The Role of the Academic Procession
The academic procession is a long-standing tradition that symbolizes the importance of academic achievement and recognizes the contributions of distinguished individuals in the field of education. The procession involves a group of faculty members, graduates, and dignitaries who march together in academic regalia, which includes caps and gowns in specific colors and designs.
One of the key features of the academic procession is the unique symbolism of the caps and gowns worn by the participants. The caps and gowns represent the academic achievements of the participants and are often associated with specific degrees or academic disciplines. Additionally, the caps and gowns are often decorated with tassels, cords, and other adornments that signify various academic honors and achievements.
- The Cap
- The Gown
- The Hood
Each element of the academic regalia has its own special significance. For example, the cap (also known as a mortarboard) is generally associated with formal academic dress and is characterized by a flat, square top and a tassel that hangs from the center. The gown, on the other hand, is a loose-fitting, ankle-length garment that typically features long, flowing sleeves and a closed front.
The hood is another important element of the academic regalia and is typically worn by graduates who have obtained master’s or doctoral degrees. The hood is designed to be hung down the back of the gown and is decorated with colors and symbols that represent the graduate’s academic discipline and institution.
Overall, the academic procession is an important tradition that honors the achievements of scholars and recognizes the importance of education. Whether you are participating in the procession or simply observing from the sidelines, it is a powerful reminder of the role that education plays in our world.
|Academic Degree||Cap Color||Gown Color||Hood Color(s)|
|Bachelor’s||Black||Black||Color(s) of Institution and Discipline|
|Master’s||Black||Black||Color(s) of Institution and Discipline, with a Silk Border|
|Doctoral||Black||Black||Color(s) of Institution and Discipline, with a Velvet Border and Satin Liner|
It is important to note that while many universities and colleges follow these traditions, there may be variations in the colors and designs of the academic regalia. Always check with your institution for specific guidelines on graduation attire.
The use of academic dress outside of graduation ceremonies
Academic dress, commonly known as a cap and gown, has a long history of use outside of graduation ceremonies. Here are some instances when academic dress is still worn:
- Academic Functions: Academic dress is commonly worn at convocations, inaugurations, and other academic ceremonies. At these events, faculty members and administrators wear academic regalia to mark their rank and degree.
- Religious Functions: In some religious traditions, academic dress is worn to signify an individual’s academic achievement. This is typically seen in the United Kingdom, where academic dress is worn during religious ceremonies held at universities.
- Legal Practice: In the United Kingdom, certain legal professionals still wear academic dress during court sessions. This includes barristers and judges, who are required to wear a wig and gown.
Aside from these instances, academic dress is also used in various forms of entertainment and media, such as movie and television productions. In these cases, academic dress is often used to emphasize the intellectual and scholarly nature of a particular character, or to signify a graduation ceremony.
It is important to note that the use of academic dress outside of graduation ceremonies is not limited to the United States or the United Kingdom. In many countries around the world, academic dress is worn at various academic, religious, and legal functions.
The History of Academic Dress
Academic dress has been in use for centuries, with records of its use dating back to the 12th century. Initially, academic dress was used to signify membership in a particular academic community, such as a university or a college. Over time, academic dress evolved to include a variety of colors and designs, with each element having a unique meaning.
The use of academic dress in graduation ceremonies first became popularized in the United States during the late 19th century. It was during this time that universities began to organize formal commencement exercises, and academic dress became an integral part of the ceremony. Today, academic dress is still worn at graduation ceremonies across the globe, with each institution having its own unique regalia.
|Gown||Represents the medieval origins of academic dress|
|Hood||Signifies the degree earned, with different colors and trimming representing different fields of study|
|Cap||Typically a square cap known as a mortarboard, it symbolizes the academic achievement of the wearer|
Academic dress holds a significant meaning, not just in graduation ceremonies, but also in various academic, religious, and legal functions. Its long history and continued use is a testament to the importance and value of academic achievement and intellectual pursuit.
The Controversy Surrounding Academic Dress and Its Colonial History
One of the most debated topics surrounding academic dress is its colonial history. The tradition of wearing caps and gowns originated from the medieval universities of Europe in the 12th and 13th centuries. At that time, these institutions were highly exclusive and had strict dress codes that reflected the class structure of European society. Only a limited number of students were allowed to wear academic dress – mostly those who belonged to the upper class or nobility.
However, the controversy surrounding academic dress intensified in more recent times, as it became apparent that the colonial roots of the tradition were still reflected even in modern times. Many argue that the tradition of wearing caps and gowns perpetuates socio-economic and racial biases, as it reflects the elitist values and exclusivity of the past.
- One of the most contentious issues is the use of the hood on academic regalia, which is meant to represent the academic discipline and degree of the wearer. However, the color of the hood also reflects the institution that granted the degree. This has been criticized for reinforcing elitism and exclusivity, as it privileges the graduates of prestigious institutions over those from less renowned ones.
- Another issue is the graduation ceremony itself, which often involves certain rituals and protocols that reinforce hierarchy and exclusivity. For instance, graduates are asked to stand up and be recognized according to their degree or academic discipline, further emphasizing the division between the privileged and the less privileged.
- Furthermore, the fact that academic dress is still mostly worn in Western universities, despite their growing diversity, has been criticized for perpetuating a Eurocentric worldview that disregards the contributions of non-Western societies to the field of knowledge.
However, defenders of the tradition argue that it represents the academic rigor and hard work that students put into achieving their degrees. They also point out that academic dress has evolved over time, and that modern-day versions of the tradition are much more inclusive and diverse. Many institutions have modified their dress codes to incorporate different cultural symbolism, and have made efforts to celebrate diversity during graduation ceremonies.
|Represents academic rigor||Reflects elitist values|
|Symbolizes achievement||Excludes non-Western cultures|
|Evolved to be more inclusive||Reinforces hierarchy and exclusivity|
The controversy surrounding academic dress and its colonial history is likely to continue, as the tradition remains a fundamental aspect of many universities and colleges around the world. However, as society becomes more enlightened about issues of diversity and inclusivity, it is inevitable that the tradition will also evolve to reflect these values.
What Does the Cap and Gown Symbolize?
1. What is the origin of the cap and gown?
The use of academic regalia dates back to the Middle Ages, when scholars began wearing robes and hoods as a way to distinguish themselves from the rest of the population.
2. What do the different colors signify?
The color of the cap and gown can vary depending on the school and degree earned. Traditionally, black is used for bachelor’s degrees, while master’s degrees are represented by black gowns with accent colors. Doctoral degrees use a gown and cap in a specific color, such as blue for philosophy or purple for law.
3. Why do graduates wear caps and gowns?
Wearing caps and gowns during graduation ceremonies serves as a visual representation of an individual’s academic achievement. It also represents the tradition and history of higher education.
4. What is the significance of the tassel on the cap?
The tassel on the cap is worn on the right side before the degree is officially conferred. After the degree is conferred, the graduate turns the tassel to the left side. This act symbolizes the transition from student to graduate.
5. Can graduates personalize their caps?
Many schools now allow graduates to decorate their caps with personal messages, quotes, and designs. This trend has become increasingly popular, allowing graduates to showcase their individuality and creativity.
6. When do graduates wear caps and gowns?
Caps and gowns are typically worn during graduation ceremonies, but may also be worn during other academic events such as convocations or commencements.
7. Do different countries have different styles of academic regalia?
Yes, different countries have their own styles of academic regalia. For instance, British and Canadian universities often use hoods over their gowns to represent the field of study.
Closing: Thanks for Joining Us!
We hope this article has answered your questions about what the cap and gown symbolize. Whether you’re a graduate or just curious about academic traditions, we hope you learned something new today. Don’t forget to come back and check out our other articles on education and culture. Thanks for reading!